All pottery was locally made. From the third millennium BC on, comb-impressed Beaker ware, as well as other Beaker material in Ozieri or sub-Ozieri contexts, has been found, demonstrating continuing relationships with the western Mediterranean; it appears likely that Sardinia was the intermediary that brought Beaker materials to Tuscany and Sicily.The On-line Encyclopedia of the Roman Provinces - ERP, 2007, PREHISTORY: NEOLITHIC [http://www.usd.edu/erp/Sardinia/prehist.htm] ] The Ozieri culture (3500-2700 BC) developed mighty megalithic walls that are limited to the northern area, suggesting unknown defensive demands that are the sign of the warlike state that can be noticed at the same time in the Mediterranean. [Flanagan 1998, p.156] A few burials seem to indicate social status, though in other contexts an emphasis to special skills is more likely. A short-lived first occupation of pre-Bell Beaker building phase about 3000 BC revealed the remains of a tower, some pavings and structures for burning. Suárez Otero (1997) postulated this corded Beakers entered the mediterranean by routes both through the Atlantic coast and through eastern France. Presumably Beaker culture spread from here to the remainder of Denmark, and to other regions in Scandinavia and northern Germany as well. All-over ornamented (AOO) and All-over-corded (AOC), and particularly Maritime style beakers are featured, although from a fairly late context and possibly rather of Epi-maritime style, equivalent to the situation in northern Holland, where Maritime ornamentation continued after it ceased in the central region of Veluwe (cf. Also, the spread of metallurgy in Denmark is intimately related to the Beaker representation in northern Jutland. protruding foot beaker CATEGORY: artifact; culture [LOS ORÍGENES DEL POBLAMIENTO BALEAR, UNA DISCUSIÓN NO ACABADA - Manuel Calvo Trias, Víctor M. Guerrero Ayuso, Bartomeu Salvà Simonet, Complutum, 13, 2002: 159-191 I.S.S.N. Although there are very few evaluable anthropological finds, the appearance of the characteristic planoccipital Taurid type in the populations of some later cultures (e.g. The beakers of this type are decorated with dotted geometrical style. It also begins c. 1900 BCE. In the majority of Britain, beakers are contemporary with a visible shift from large communal tombs to individual burials or cremation, sometimes under barrows or cairns.Britain’s only unique export in this period is thought to be tin. The abundance of different cultural elements that persisted towards the end of the Bronze Age, show a clear continuity of different regional and intrusive traditions.The presence of perforated Beaker pottery, traditionally considered to be used for making cheese, at Son Ferrandell-Oleza (Waldren 1998: 95) and at Coval Simó (Coll 2000), confirms the introduction of production and conservation of dairy. A series of copper mines from here are the earliest known in Ireland, starting from around 2500BC (O’Brien 2004). Collective burials in dolmen structures in Ibiza could be contrasted against the individual burials in Majorca. A third building fase followed smoothly and lasted to about 1300 BC, after which the site was covered with layers of stone and clay, apparently deliberately, and abandoned. [Flanagan 1998, p.78] Classification of pottery in Ireland and Britain has distinguished a total of seven intrusiveFlanagan 1998, p.82] beaker groups originating from the continent and three groups of purely insular character having evolved from them. Another site of particular interest is Ferriby on the Humber estuary, where western Europe’s oldest plank built boat was recovered.JutlandIn Denmark, large areas of forested land were cleared to be used for pasture and the growing of cereals during the Single Grave Culture and in the Late Neolithic Period. The interaction between the Beaker groups on the Veluwe Plain and in Jutland must, at least initially, have been quite intensive. [Struve 1955, pl. "Antiquity" 49, 19-25*Darvill, T., "Oxford Concise Dictionary of Archaeology", 2002, Oxford University Press, ISBN 019-211649-5. Its incise decoration consists of parallel bands delimited by crooked lines. With some notable exceptions, most Iberian early Bell Beaker "burials" are at or near the coastal regions. [Flanagan 1998, p.155] Ireland has the greatest concentration of gold lunulae and stone wrist-guards in Europe. Clusters of Late Neolithic Beaker presence similar to northern Jutland appear as pockets or "islands" of Beaker Culture in northern Europe, such as Mecklenburg, Schleswig-Holstein, and southern Norway. ISBN 84-249-1015-X.] All pottery was locally made. Towards the transition to LN II some farm houses became extraordinarily large.The cultural concepts originally adopted from Beaker groups at the lower Rhine blended or integrated with local Late Neolithic Culture. Although controversial, the theory fits according to its proponents the archeological evidence that provides little support for westward migrations of Celtic people matching the historically known movements south and west. [Struve 1955, pl. After 2200BC there is greater chemical variation in British and Irish copper artefacts, which tallies well with the appearance of other mines in southern Ireland and north Wales. [Nicolis, F. (2001) Bell Beakers Today: pottery, people, culture, symbols in prehistoric Europe (2 volumes). Concurrent introduction of metallurgy shows that some people must have crossed cultural boundaries. Apel (2001, 42; 323ff) argued that an institutionalised apprenticeship system must have existed craftsman-ship was transmitted by inheritance in certain families living in the vicinity of abundant resources of high-quality flint. The interaction between the Beaker groups on the Veluwe Plain and in Jutland must, at least initially, have been quite intensive. Domestic sites with Beakers only appear 200-300 years after the first appearance of Bell Beakers in Europe, at the early part of the Danish Late Neolithic Period (LN I) starting at 2350 BC. "Antiquity" 49, 19-25*Darvill, T., "Oxford Concise Dictionary of Archaeology", 2002, Oxford University Press, ISBN 019-211649-5. In addition, two thirds of copper artefacts from Britain also display the same chemical and isotopic signature, strongly suggesting that Irish copper was a major export to Britain (Northover "et al" 2001). ISBN 84-249-1015-X.] Lanting/van der Waals 1976 a) and were succeeded c. 2300 BC by beakers of the Veluwe and Epi-Maritime style. Another site of particular interest is Ferriby on the Humber estuary, where western Europe’s oldest plank built boat was recovered.JutlandIn Denmark, large areas of forested land were cleared to be used for pasture and the growing of cereals during the Single Grave Culture and in the Late Neolithic Period. [http://www.answers.com/topic/beaker-culture] The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology - Timothy Darvill, 2002, Beaker culture, p.42, Oxford University Press, ISBN 019-211649-5] Bell Beaker domestic ware has no predecessors in Bohemia and Southern Germany, shows no genetic relation to the local Late Copper Age Corded Ware, nor to other cultures in the area, and is considered something completely new. Their greater concentration in the northern part of the country,Flanagan 1998, p.78] which traditionally is regarded as the part of Ireland least blessed with sources of copper, has led many authorities to question the role of Beaker People in the introduction of metallurgy to Ireland. The relationship to the western Bell Beakers groups, and the contemporary cultures of the Carpathian basin to the south east, is much less.Bell Beaker settlements in South Germany and Central Europe, Volker Heyd, Ludwig Husty & Ludwig Kreiner, 2004 [http://www.bris.ac.uk/archanth/staff/heyd/Bell2.pdf] ] Research in Northern Poland shifted the north-eastern frontier of this complex to the western parts of the Baltic with the adjacent Northern European plain. [Flanagan 1998, p.158] Although the typical Bell Beaker practice of crouched burial has been observed, [Flanagan 1998, p.96,151] cremation was readily adopted [Flanagan 1998, p.105-106, only fully at the vase tradition] in accordance with the previous tradition of the autochthons. Bochum: Dt. They were subsequently widely adopted in other parts of Europe (Schuhmacher 2002), possibly showing a change in the technology of warfare.The Bronze Age Beaker period is noteworthy, since archeological finds seem to indicate a strong continuity with native Bronze Age traditions in Ireland as much as Britain. A comparison of chemical traces and lead isotope analysis from these mines with copper artefacts strongly suggests that Ross Island was the sole source of copper in Ireland between the dates 2500-2200BC. [Flanagan 1998, p.104-105 and 111-114] The vase tradition has a general distribution and feature almost exclusively cremation. Late Copper Age 1 was defined in Southern Germany by the connection of the late Cham Culture, Globular Amphora Culture and the older Corded Ware Culture of "beaker group 1" that is also referred to as Horizon A or Step A. 2300 BC–1600 BC)*Tumulus culture (ca. The LN I copper flat axes divide into As-Sb-Ni copper, recalling so-called Dutch Bell Beaker copper and the As-Ni copper found occasionally in British and Irish Beaker contexts, the mining region of Dutch Bell Beaker copper being perhaps Brittany; and the Early Bronze Age Singen (As-Sb-Ag-Ni) and Ösenring (As-Sb-Ag) coppers having a central European – probably Alpine – origin.The Beaker group in northern Jutland forms an integrated part of the western European Beaker Culture, while western Jutland provided a link between the Lower Rhine area and northern Jutland. Younger Bell Beaker Culture of Early Bronze Age shows analogies to the Proto-Únětice Culture in Moravia and the Early Nagyrév Culture of the Carpathian Basin.During the Bell Beaker period a border runs through southern Germany, which dividesculturally a northern from a southern area. The successing chalcolithic (aneolithic) Filigosa-Abealzu culture (2700-2500 BC) followed the collapse of the great megalithic civilizations. Other possible European sources of tin are located in Brittany and Iberia, but it is not thought they were exploited so early as these areas did not have Bronze until after it was well established in Britain and Ireland (Bradley 2007, 146).The most famous site in Britain from this period is Stonehenge, which had its Neolithic form elaborated extensively. Most British beakers come from funerary contexts. London: Thames & Hudson *J. P. Mallory, "Beaker Culture", "Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture", Fitzroy Dearborn 1997. The finding of early AOC pottery now also at mediate distances from the sea has urged for a "complete rethink of the ways that this pottery circulated in the Peninsula." The finding of early AOC pottery now also at mediate distances from the sea has urged for a "complete rethink of the ways that this pottery circulated in the Peninsula." A comparison of chemical traces and lead isotope analysis from these mines with copper artefacts strongly suggests that Ross Island was the sole source of copper in Ireland between the dates 2500-2200BC. The inhabitants of Ireland used food vessels as a grave good instead. By the fifteenth century, international trade returned, making Sardinia an integral part of a commercial network that extended from the Near East to Northwestern Europe, the principal eastern component of this network being Cyprus. After 2000BC, other copper sources supersede Ross Island. J. Harrison, "The Beaker Folk", Thames and Hudson (1980). They are essentially broad blades that were mounted horizontally on a meter long handle, giving greater reach and impact than any known contemporary weapon (O’Flaherty 2007). also Thorpe/Richards 1984; Lohof 1994; Strahm 1998] The connection with the East Group Beakers of Únětice had intensified considerably in LN II, thus triggering a new social transformation and innovations in metallurgy that would announce the actual beginning of the Northern Bronze Age. ): "Bell Beakers Today: pottery people, culture, symbols in prehistoric Europe" (two volumes). or proto-Italic (Italo-Celtic) culture. Although there are very few evaluable anthropological finds, the appearance of the characteristic planoccipital Taurid type in the populations of some later cultures (e.g. The frequent occurrence of Beaker pottery in settlements points at a large-scaled form of social identity or cultural identity, or perhaps an ethnic identity.In eastern Denmark and Scania one-person graves occur primarily in flat grave cemeteries. ): "Bell Beakers Today: pottery people, culture, symbols in prehistoric Europe" (two volumes). It is also found in the plateau, the Guadalquivir basin and northern Morocco. Bell Beaker pottery has been found in Majorca and Formentera but has not been observed in Minorca or Ibiza. After a break Bell Beaker pottery was introduced in a second building phase of one or two centuries later, that lasted to the Early Bronze Age until 1800 BC. [Flanagan 1998, p.104-105 and 111-114] The vase tradition has a general distribution and feature almost exclusively cremation. [Flanagan 1998, p.133] The Irish Beaker period is characterized by the ancientness of Beaker intrusions, by isolation [Flanagan 1998, p.88, isolated development of three Beaker groups of pure insular character] and by influences and surviving traditions of autochthons. [cf. Concurrent introduction of metallurgy shows that some people must have crossed cultural boundaries. In Hauptmann, A., Pernicka, E., Rehren, T. and Yalçin, Ü. Settlements link the Southern German Bell Beaker culture to the seven regional provinces of the Eastern Group, represented by many settlement traces, especially from Moravia and the Hungarian Bell Beaker-Csepel group being the most important. In Britain, domestic assemblages from this period are very rare, making it hard to draw conclusions about many aspects of society. London: Thames & Hudson *J. P. Mallory, "Beaker Culture", "Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture", Fitzroy Dearborn 1997. *O’Flaherty, R. (2007) A Weapon of Choice: experiments with a replica Irish early Bronze Age Halberd, "Antiquity" 81, 425-434*O'Kelly, M.J. (1982) "Newgrange: Archaeology, Art and Legend." [Flanagan 1998, p.155] Ireland has the greatest concentration of gold lunulae and stone wrist-guards in Europe. Towards the transition to LN II some farm houses became extraordinarily large.The cultural concepts originally adopted from Beaker groups at the lower Rhine blended or integrated with local Late Neolithic Culture. The local fine-ware pottery of Beaker derivation reveal links with other Beaker regions in western Europe, most specifically the Veluwe group at the Lower Rhine. Towards the transition to LN II some farm houses became extraordinarily large.The cultural concepts originally adopted from Beaker groups at the lower Rhine blended or integrated with local Late Neolithic Culture. Most LN I metal objects are distinctly influenced by the western European Beaker metal industry, gold sheet ornaments and copper flat axes being the predominant metal objects. Also, the spread of metallurgy in Denmark is intimately related to the Beaker representation in northern Jutland. A gold ornament found in County Down that closely resembles a pair of ear-rings from Ermegeira, Portugal, has a composition that suggests it was imported. [Flanagan 1998, p.71] In a tumulus the find of the extended skeleton of a woman accompanied by the remains of a red deer and a small seven-year-old stallion is noteworthy, including the hint to a Diana-like religion. Although there are very few evaluable anthropological finds, the appearance of the characteristic planoccipital Taurid type in the populations of some later cultures (e.g. ): "The Beginnings of Metallurgy." Torento: Servizio Beni Culturali Ufficio Beni Archeologici, pp361-377*Charles, J.A. After a break Bell Beaker pottery was introduced in a second building phase of one or two centuries later, that lasted to the Early Bronze Age until 1800 BC. One non-local Bell Beaker sherd, however, belonging to the upper part of a beaker with a curved neck and thin walls, was found at the bedrock base of this second phase. They were subsequently widely adopted in other parts of Europe (Schuhmacher 2002), possibly showing a change in the technology of warfare. Many barrows surround it and an unusual number of ‘rich’ burials can be found nearby, such as the Amesbury Archer. This tradition showed local continuity to historic times, as it was at such centers that the Romans found attacking the natives most efficient (Strabo 5.2.7).Central EuropeIn their large-scale study on radiocarbon dating of the Bell Beakers, J. Müller and S. Willingen (2001) established that the Bell Beaker Culture in Central Europe started after the year of 2500 B.C.Two great coexisting and separate Central European cultures – the Corded Ware with its regional groups and the Eastern Group of the Bell Beaker Culture – form the background to the Late Copper Age and Early Bronze Age. Five out of seven of the intrusive Beaker groups also appear in Ireland: the European bell group, the All-over cord beakers, the Northern British/North Rhine beakers, the Northern British/Middle Rhine beakers and the Wessex/Middle Rhine beakers. The advent of the Bronze Age Beaker culture in Ireland [Ancient Ireland, Life before the Celts - Laurence Flanagan, 1998, Gil & MacMillan, ISBN 0-7171-2433-9] is accompanied by the destruction of smaller satellite tombs at Knowth [Flanagan 1998, p.71] and collapses of the great cairn at Newgrange, [Flanagan 1998, p.99] marking an end to the Neolithic culture of megalithic passage tombs. It is found specially in the Mediterranean areas but also reaches to the Basque Country and Badajoz. The frequent occurrence of Beaker pottery in settlements points at a large-scaled form of social identity or cultural identity, or perhaps an ethnic identity.In eastern Denmark and Scania one-person graves occur primarily in flat grave cemeteries. Especially some well-equipped child-burials seem to indicate sense of predestined social position, indicating a socially complex society. ): "Bell Beakers Today: pottery people, culture, symbols in prehistoric Europe" (two volumes). *O’Flaherty, R. (2007) A Weapon of Choice: experiments with a replica Irish early Bronze Age Halberd, "Antiquity" 81, 425-434*O'Kelly, M.J. (1982) "Newgrange: Archaeology, Art and Legend." your own Pins on Pinterest Bell Beaker pottery has been found in Majorca and Formentera but has not been observed in Minorca or Ibiza. 2300 BC–1600 BC)*Tumulus culture (ca. In Portugal, supposedly archaic styles predominate in the north of the country, which in other parts of the Peninsula, such as Estremadura and the Alentejo, can be seen as evidence of early dates, from the early or mid-3rd millennium BC.Very early dates for Bell Beakers were found in Castelo Velho de Freixo de Numão in Guarda, Northern Portugal. According to archaeology, the populational groups of the Bell-beakers also took part in the formation of the Gáta-Wieselburg culture on the western fringes of theCarpathian Basin, which could be confirmed with the anthropological Bell Beakerseries in Moravia and Germany.In accordance with anthropological evidence, it has been concluded the Bell Beakers intruded in an already established form the southern part of Germany as much as the East Group area.Iberian peninsulaThe Bell Beaker phenomenon in the Iberian peninsula defines the late phase of the local Chalcolithic and even intrudes in the earliest centuries of the Bronze Age.At present no internal chronology for the various Bell Beaker-related styles has been achieved yet for Iberia. In the Iberian Peninsula this AOC type was traditionally restricted to half a dozen scattered sites in the western Pyrenees, the lower Ebro and the Spanish east coast: especially a vessel at Filomena at Villarreal, Castellón (Spain), has parallels with the decoration. However, neither of these items were deposited in graves and they tend to be found isolated and at random, making it difficult to draw conclusions about their use or role in society at the time.One of the most important sites in Ireland during this period is Ross Island. Also in northern Jutland, the body of the deceased was normally arranged lying on its back in an extended position, but a typical Bell Beaker contracted position occurs occasionally. The inhabitants of Ireland used food vessels as a grave good instead. In addition, two thirds of copper artefacts from Britain also display the same chemical and isotopic signature, strongly suggesting that Irish copper was a major export to Britain (Northover "et al" 2001). A significant impulse given to metallurgy accompanied vascular production characterized by a disappearance of earlier St.Micheal (Ozieri) fanciful decoration in favor of blank soberly scribbled surfaces. Maritime Bell Beakers related to Herringbone, Lined and Cord-Zoned are tentatively dated in the first half of the 3rd millennium. A Test of Non-metrical Analysis as Applied to the 'Beaker Problem' - Natasha Grace Bartels,University of Albeda, Department of Anthropology, 1998 [http://www.collectionscanada.ca/obj/s4/f2/dsk2/ftp01/MQ34298.pdf] ] The early studies on the Beakers which were based on the analysis of their skeletal remains, were craniometric. Being traditionally associated to the introduction of metallurgy, the first traces of copper working on the Baleares was here indeed also clearly associated to the Bell Beakers.IrelandBeakers arrived in Ireland around 2500BC and fell out of use around 1700BC (Needham 1996). In most of the areas of the mainland Boquique pottery falls into the latter stages of the Bell Beaker Complex as well. In Portugal, supposedly archaic styles predominate in the north of the country, which in other parts of the Peninsula, such as Estremadura and the Alentejo, can be seen as evidence of early dates, from the early or mid-3rd millennium BC.Very early dates for Bell Beakers were found in Castelo Velho de Freixo de Numão in Guarda, Northern Portugal. Also, the presence of spindles at sites like Son Ferrandell-Oleza (Waldren 1998: 94) or Es Velar d’Aprop (Carreras y Covas 1984) point to knowledge of making thread and textiles from wool. [Flanagan 1998, p.133] The Irish Beaker period is characterized by the ancientness of Beaker intrusions, by isolation [Flanagan 1998, p.88, isolated development of three Beaker groups of pure insular character] and by influences and surviving traditions of autochthons. In Denmark, this mode of building houses is clearly rooted in a Middle Neolithic tradition. The technique and patterning are classic forms in the context of pure European and Peninsular corded ware. According to archaeology, the populational groups of the Bell-beakers also took part in the formation of the Gáta-Wieselburg culture on the western fringes of theCarpathian Basin, which could be confirmed with the anthropological Bell Beakerseries in Moravia and Germany.In accordance with anthropological evidence, it has been concluded the Bell Beakers intruded in an already established form the southern part of Germany as much as the East Group area.Iberian peninsulaThe Bell Beaker phenomenon in the Iberian peninsula defines the late phase of the local Chalcolithic and even intrudes in the earliest centuries of the Bronze Age.At present no internal chronology for the various Bell Beaker-related styles has been achieved yet for Iberia. (1975) Where is all the Tin? The preferred method of burial seems to have been singular graves and cists in the east, or in small wedge tombs in the west. In Denmark, this mode of building houses is clearly rooted in a Middle Neolithic tradition. also Thorpe/Richards 1984; Lohof 1994; Strahm 1998] The connection with the East Group Beakers of Únětice had intensified considerably in LN II, thus triggering a new social transformation and innovations in metallurgy that would announce the actual beginning of the Northern Bronze Age. Five out of seven of the intrusive Beaker groups also appear in Ireland: the European bell group, the All-over cord beakers, the Northern British/North Rhine beakers, the Northern British/Middle Rhine beakers and the Wessex/Middle Rhine beakers. Typical to northern Jutland, however, cremations have been reported, also outside the Beaker core area, once within the context of an almost full Bell Beaker equipment.The introductory phase of the manufacture and use of flint daggers, around 2350 BC, must all in all be characterised as a period of social change. With some notable exceptions, most Iberian early Bell Beaker "burials" are at or near the coastal regions. While for most of the Bell Beaker findings in the Iberian peninsula the chronology is not older than the 22nd century BCE, there are a couple of controversial findings that are claimed to have much older radiocarbon dates, specifically at Lapa do Bugio and Somaén, dated 2900 and 2780 BCE respectively.The lack or presence of Bell Beaker elements is the basis for the division of Los Millares and Vila Nova cultures in two periods: I and II.Balearic IslandsRadiocarbon dating currently indicates a 1200 year duration for the use of the Beaker pottery on the Balearic Islands, between circa 2475 BC and 1300 BC (Waldren and Van Strydonck 1996). Three of them were carbon dated to the first half of the 3rd millennium BC. In the Iberian Peninsula this AOC type was traditionally restricted to half a dozen scattered sites in the western Pyrenees, the lower Ebro and the Spanish east coast: especially a vessel at Filomena at Villarreal, Castellón (Spain), has parallels with the decoration. distinguishes the following types using dates that are not calibrated:*Corded type. "Antiquity" 49, 19-25*Darvill, T., "Oxford Concise Dictionary of Archaeology", 2002, Oxford University Press, ISBN 019-211649-5. From the third millennium BC on, comb-impressed Beaker ware, as well as other Beaker material in Ozieri or sub-Ozieri contexts, has been found, demonstrating continuing relationships with the western Mediterranean; it appears likely that Sardinia was the intermediary that brought Beaker materials to Tuscany and Sicily.The On-line Encyclopedia of the Roman Provinces - ERP, 2007, PREHISTORY: NEOLITHIC [http://www.usd.edu/erp/Sardinia/prehist.htm] ] The Ozieri culture (3500-2700 BC) developed mighty megalithic walls that are limited to the northern area, suggesting unknown defensive demands that are the sign of the warlike state that can be noticed at the same time in the Mediterranean. In the Iberian Peninsula this AOC type was traditionally restricted to half a dozen scattered sites in the western Pyrenees, the lower Ebro and the Spanish east coast: especially a vessel at Filomena at Villarreal, Castellón (Spain), has parallels with the decoration. [The Nuragic civilization - Paolo Melis, 2003, p.25, Carlo Delfino editore, Italy, ISBN 88-7138-278-1] Indigenous Sardinians appear in the Eastern Mediterranean as Sherden, one of the main tribes of the Sea Peoples, and are supposed to be the carriers of some of the eastern material found on the island.Religion expressed itself around sacred wells, often in association to the megalithic nuraghe, most of them of Beaker signature. Danish Beakers are contemporary with the earliest Early Bronze Age (EBA) of the East Group of Bell Beakers in central Europe, and with the floruit of Beaker cultures of the West Group in western Europe. Galway: National University of Ireland. Although a broadly parallel evolution with early, middle and younger Bell Beaker Culture was detected, the Southern Germany middle Bell Beaker development of metope decorations and stamp and furrow engraving techniques do not appear on beakers in Austria-Western Hungary, and handled beakers are completely absent.